Alternative medicine: Sarang Semut conqueror of Death, Disease
By: M. Ahkam Subroto * )
Papua is one of the regions in Indonesia, which is rich in biodiversity, including medicinal plants. Some of the medicinal plant of Papua have been up a lot of attention, both the conventional medical treatment and the complementary and alternative, including the crown is a popular deity in early 2000, the red fruit in 2004 and keben 2005. Now herbal-herbal is still spoken and used by the public. Khasiatnya start also recognized abroad.
Early 2006 we have introduced a herbal from Papua who also got tremendous response from the community, namely plants, ant nest. more or less the last 3 years this many people discuss the ant nest as it has a lot to savor cure various diseases, ranging from mild illness, such as the head, rheumatism, nosebleed, ulcer, acid strand and hemorrhoids to serious diseases such as tumor, cancer, liver, lung tuberculosis, kidney trouble, heart and coronary prostat. In addition, this plant can increase production and facilitate the breast milk ( ASI) and restore the health of women after childbirth, increasing stamina and as afrodisiak ( increase sexual passion) say that even in the womb plavanoidnya can control the development of herpes virus and HIV-AIDS ( as well as written by Dr.Ir.M Ahkam Subroto, M.App.Sc, APU Sendro Saputra gempur disease in the book with the ant nest) .
Recognize Tumbuhan Sarang Semut
Ant nest that has been known by the public is a form of ant nest holes in the ground, building or leaves in the tree that is made by the ant colony, the ant can be red, rangkang, black ant, or white ant. But here is not like the ant nest, but attached epifit plant trees in large part, beneath the trunk containing blister cavity-cavity which is provided as a certain type of ant nest.
Ant nest is a plant of Hydnophytinae ( Rubiaceae) associated with ant. This plant is epifit means stick to the other plants, the parasite does not live on inangnya but only to utilize patch. Example epifit another commonly found in living trees is scaly moss, moss, alga, perambat plants and orchids. Actually there are 5 of the ant genus nest Rubiaceae family, but only the genus Hydnophytum and Myrmecodia closest berasosiasi with ant. Ant nest genus is divided into several species based on the structure umbinya. Hydnophytum consists of 45 species and 26 species Myrmecodia so there are 71 species ant nest. All species of plants, has a hollow stem bubble-like cavity which is generally populated by ant.
The distribution & Ecology
The distribution of ant nest from Peninsular Malaysia to the Philippines, Thailand, vietnamese, Cambodia, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java, Papua, Papua New Guinea, Cape York and the Solomon Islands in the country even china has been reported consume ant nest & semutnya as medicine since 3000 years ago. In Papua Province, plants ant nest can be found mainly in the regions of Middle Mountain, which is in the wilderness Jayawijaya District, Kabupaten Tolikara, Kabupaten Puncak Jaya, District Mountain Stars and regency Paniai. Diversity of ant nest found on the island of Papua, where the high plains species is locally specific.
In ecology, ant nest spread of mangrove forest and the trees along the coast to an altitude of 2400 m. Ant nest most often found in the grass and rarely found in lowland tropical forests, but more usually found in forests and agricultural areas with an altitude of about 600 m. He found a lot of stick in some trees, usually in white wood tree ( melaleuca) , mountain pine ( Casuarina) , kaha ( castanopsis) and beech trees ( nothofagus) , but rarely on a tree-trunk tree with smooth and responsive as Eucalyptus. Ant nest is growing on the plains without a tree with nutrients and low altitude above the tree. Liarnya habitat in the ant nest inhabited by a variety of ant species and often by three species of the genus Iridomyrmex. Identification that we make to ant nest Myrmecodia pendens shows that this plant is inhabited by colonies of the ant species Ochetellus sp.
Traditional knowledge Semut Sarang
From the literature there are only 1 and 1 species Hydnophytum species Myrmecodia used as medicine by local residents of a particular region in Southeast Asia, namely Hydnophytum formicarum Jack and Jack Myrmecodia tuberosa. In Indonesia, H. formicarum that in urek-called urek polo pastanya form is used to treat swelling, headaches and rheumatism. While the water is used to treat rebusannya Hernia and ulcer. In the Philippines, water rebusannya used to treat liver and digestive problems. In Thailand, serbuknya used to antelmintik ( helminthic) , and tonic heart, bone disease, skin disease, lung disease, pain in the joint and as a compound for drug antidiabetes. In Malaysia, water rebusannya used to treat cancer. In Vietnam, this plant is used to treat hepatitis, rheumatism and diarrhea.
In Indonesia' s pasta species M. tuberosa, called the ant' s house, used to treat swelling and headache. In addition, other species, M. pendans also traditionally used by local residents in Papua to cure various health disturbances, but does not clear the types of diseases that can be cured with this type of ant nest. Based on the traditional knowledge this is the end of 2002 since we started to develop and popularize this type of ant nest as a variety of diseases such as drug tumor / cancer, coronary heart, hemorrhoids, stroke, rheumatism, interference prostat, dll. A series of scientific research has been done to reveal the LIPI savor this ant nest.
Active matrix compound
Chemical analysis of the ant nest indicates that this particular plant compound-containing chemical compound of the flavonoid and tanin. Flavonoid compound is the material nature of the compound fenolik many plants, is a pigment. Currently more than 6000 different compound into the flavonoid. Flavonoid is an important part of our diet because many benefits for health. Most of flavonoid function in our bodies is as antioxidants. Flavonoid, among other benefits is to protect the structure of cells, have a synergistic relationship with vitamin C ( to increase the effectiveness of vitamin C) , antiinflamasi, hollow bones and prevent as antibiotics. In many cases, flavonoid can contribute directly as with the antibiotics disrupt the function of microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses. Function as antiviral flavonoid has been published, including for the HIV virus ( AIDS) and herpes virus. In addition, the flavonoid also reported a role in the treatment and prevention of some diseases such as asthma, kataraks, diabetes, gout / rheumatism, migraine, hemorrhoids, and periodontitis ( inflammation network bind buffer tooth root) . Ability ant nest treatment for various types of cancer / tumor, tuberculosis, rheumatism and / rheumatism closely associated with the womb flavonoidnya.
Tanin is astringen, polifenol plant bitter taste that can bind and precipitate proteins. Tanin generally known to use for leather tannery, but also many tanin application in the field of treatment, such as treatment for diarrhea, hemostatik ( stop bleeding) , and hemorrhoids. Ability ant nest treatment for hemorrhoids and nosebleed closely associated with the womb taninnya.
In addition, the ant nest tokoferol is rich in antioxidants ( vitamin E) and several important minerals for the body such as calcium, natrium, potassium, zinc, iron, phosphorus and magnesium.
The composition and the actual active compound ant nest:
Energy ( Kcal/ 100g)
Calcium ( Ca) ( g/ 100 g)
Water ( g/ 100 g)
Natrium ( Na) ( mg/ 100 g)
Ash content ( g/ 100 g)
Potassium ( K) ( g/ 100 g)
Fat content ( g/ 100 g)
Zinc ( Zn) ( mg/ 100 g)
Protein content ( g/ 100 g)
Iron ( Fe) ( mg/ 100 g)
Carbohydrate content ( g/ 100 g)
Phosphorus ( P) ( g/ 100 g)
Tokoferol ( mg/ 100 g)
Magnesium ( Mg) ( g/ 100 g)
Total fenol ( g/ 10 0g)
System in the body metabolism, calcium in the working heart function, nerve impulse, and blood coagulation. Iron works in the formation of hemoglobin, oxygen transport, aktivator enzyme. Phosphorus function in calcium absorption and energy production. Natrium has a role in electrolyte balance, body fluid volume and the nerve impulse. Potassium function in heart rhythm, nerve impulse and equilibrium acid-basa. Zinc has a function in protein synthesis, sexual function, storage of insulin, carbohydrate metabolism and wound healing. While magnesium has a role in the function of bone, liver, muscle, water transfer intraseluler, harmony and basa neuromuskuler activity. Functions of the minerals on the property could explain some of the ant nest, for example, help in overcoming a variety of disease / heart trouble, unleash the curse and treat keputihan, smooth blood circulation, treat migraen ( the headaches) , and renal disfunction prostat, restore the body' s well-being and stamina, and restore sexual passion.
Summary Farmakologi Sarang Semut
In some ASEAN countries such as Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, research of this type of ant nest H. formicarum has done since 5 years ago, mainly relating to the evaluation toksisitas, antioxidants and antikanker. So far this has been reported that extracts metanol, metanol: water ( 1: 1) , and water from H. formicarum may have hindered the growth of several types of cancer and tumor cells in vitro with the activity that is high enough. One mechanism that has been revealed that apoptosis induction is indicated by the change in morphology and DNA fragmentation.
Ethanol extract of H. formicarum also reported active inhibitor compound containing histone deacetylase ( HDAC) activity that has antikanker effective. Inhibitor HDAC active compound is a class that currently tested in clinical as antikanker. Inhibitor HDAC has been proven to prevent tumor cell growth, differentiation and menginduksi cause cell death apoptotik cells from breast cancer, lung, ovary, intestine and prostat. Suspected inhibitor HDAC causes activation of several genes transkripsional the ekspresinya cause tumor growth retardation.
Kloroform and water extracts from H. formicarum has also been reported that antioxidants have strong activity through free radical test difenil-1.1-2-pikrilhidrazil ( DPPH) with retardation concentration ( IC50) of each of 32.95 mg / ml and 39.1 mg / ml. A pure compound that has been successfully diisolasi extracts from heksana H. formicarum is stigmasterol has sitotoksik activity against breast cancer cells and cancer cells nasofaring with LC50 values of 87.7 and 34.3 mg / ml.
Multi-property type of ant nest M. pendans allegedly related to the strong matrix compound actively, mainly from the flavonoid, tanin, tokoferol, multi-mineral ( Ca, Na, K, P, Zn, Fe, Mg) and polisakarida. Ethanol extract of M. pendans have antioxidants are activities with IC50 of 48.6 mg / ml. Extracts have the same activity as the inhibitor xanthine oxidase ( anti-acid strand) that is equivalent to the concentration of allopurinol in the 200 mg / ml. Test toksisitas that have been made to extract water M. pendans shows that consumption of ant nest on the dose of 3 x 1 tablespoon ( the usual dose is consumed) is still quite safe. Pure compound that has been successful is diisolasi of the steroid / terpenoid and flavonoid glikosida.
How to Use Alternative Medicine
There are 2 forms of the ant nest products circulating in the market, the dry powder and capsule extract water. How the ant nest for dust is as follows: ( 1) Pour one tablespoon full ( about 10 g) powder into a pot made of stainless steel ( do not use aluminum pan, can leak) containing approximately 500 ml of water ( 2 glass) , ( 2) powder Cook until boiling, while the fire be diminished stirred occasionally for about 15 minutes ( 2 glasses of water to 1 cup) ; ( 3) stew is Dinginkan results; ( 4) Filter the water and water stew stew results is ready to be drunk.
In general, children under the age of 10 years were given to drink half the adult dosage dose use is:
a) . for healing: drink water results stew is regularly 2-3 times a day to recover and measure each drug for only a one-time usage
b) . for prevention: can be drunk regularly 1-2 times a week to stay healthy and in shape. While for sediaan in the form of a capsule ( @ 500 mg) , treatment dose for each disease, in general, one drink 1-2 capsule, 3x daily, to increase breastfeeding 2 x 1 capsule a day and for the stamina, 2 x 1 capsule a day.
Why ant nest so nutritious?
ant nest uniqueness lies in the interaction of ant nest in the base which is in the alley-alley dalamnya.kestabilan temperature in ant colony to create stand-berlama old nest in the plants ini.Dalam a long period of time there were a natural chemical reaction between the compound in ant to remove the substance in the plant and several other microbes, this is the mix that makes the powerful ant nest penyakit.Ahli various insects indicate that the anti-oksidan and formiat acid in saliva gland functions as a guard ant eggs in the nest semut.Bila see this is almost similar to that of honey bees to remove the eggs.
Need to cover as emphasized here that the many species of ant nest that is, there are only 3 species of nutritious medicine in accordance with traditional local knowledge in Southeast Asia, namely: Hydnophytum formicarum, Myrmecodia tuberosa and Myrmecodia pendans. Therefore, for the sake of security it is suggested that people be careful in selecting the type of ant nest is right to treatment.
There are a few tips to avoid forgery ant nest: 1.Kalau purchase in the form of a nest if diremas over bogus ant Sarang, Sarang ant is still hard 2.dari Original counterfeit bitter taste, while the fresh smell of the original search tanah3.Sebaiknya complete information Sarang ant can buy a book ditoko books ( GEMPUR DISEASES with ant nest) 4.Klo buy good factory packaging powder or capsule DEPKES see permit
There have been no information that consume liquid or powder in the ant nest kapsulkan a drink in the appropriate dose recommendation may cause effects on the user.
* ) . Author Dr.Ir.M Ahkam Subroto, M.App.Sc. born in Blora, 2 January 1964, The Main Place, LIPI, Cibinong Science Center. S1 graduated from IPB Agriculture ( 1987) , degree M.App.Sc. ( 1991) and Ph.D. ( 1995) be the field of Biotechnology University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Graduate Lecturer, Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, IPB.
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